In the world of mathematics, you’d expect that the chances of a child correctly matching their shoes to the right feet, or the possibility of correctly inserting a USB into a computer port, would stand at a clean 50 percent. This is based on the simple premise that there are two possible outcomes — right or wrong. However, **reality paints a completely different picture, as these rates are closer to zero.** Experience tells us that children tend to put the wrong shoe on the wrong foot almost every single time. Similarly, when it comes to plugging a USB into a computer, it often takes us three or four attempts to get it right. **It’s a paradox that defies our basic understanding of probability,** challenging the notion of chance and randomness.

While studying for my probability exam at the university library, I stumbled upon a book titled **‘Probability: An Introduction’ by Professor David Santos.** The introduction took a surprising turn when it read, *“To my rib, Jillie, whom I love almost surely.”* The sentence showcased the profound yet humorous side of the professor who had dedicated a lifetime to mathematical probabilities. It was both amusing and thought-provoking that Santos, a man who was so adept at calculating probabilities, **expressed his love with the term “almost surely,” implying that even in matters of the heart, there could not be a 100% guarantee.**

In the realm of mathematics, probability is conceptualized as a function that assigns an event (or non-event) to a real number within the range of 0 and 1. This number, or probability, indicates the likelihood of said event occurring.

Interestingly, the roots of probability theory can be traced back to **Blaise Pascal, a renowned French mathematician.** The inception of this theory took place some 400 years ago when a gambler posed a question to Pascal: what must be done to obtain the desired outcome when rolling dice? **Pascal’s answer to this query is widely considered to be the birth of probability theory**, sparking a new field of mathematical study that explores chance, likelihood, and predictability.